Kotlin vs Java: There were several reasons behind the incident where google had to switch from java to kotlin for its android operating system. But let us discuss some of the important ones:

the first android needed something more precise and concise to express new ideas and execute them accurately kotlin's modern language

features allow you to focus on expressing your ideas and write less boilerplate code next is to achieve a safer and more reliable coding platform. 

What is Java?

Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based object-oriented and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

Java is being the most powerful language since day one and is capable of supporting the development of multiple software applications operating systems and even new programming languages the reason for its outstanding superior performance is its features.

Here are Some Features of Java - Kotlin vs Java

High Portability: The compiler in java is written in cc. With a clean portable boundary which is none other than the POSIX subset having a neutral architecture and no implementation-dependent aspects of the specification make java the most portable language.

Support for Android: The support for android from its official release 23rd September 2008 java was the one used to design develop and deploy the Linux based operating system worldwide as the android mobile operating system android uses most of the java classes and libraries for its use.

Java's Virtual Machine:  Java's virtual machine many call it the JVM as an abbreviation and JVM is responsible for providing java its platform-independent nature which makes it most capable and superior programming languages to run on any computing device regardless of the operating system platform the device is running on.

Simplicity and Readability: Java is designed to be easy to learn and if you learn the basic concepts of object-oriented programming it will be easier to master.

Java Security: Java security enables the development of virus-free tamper-free systems authentication techniques are based on public-key encryption.

Java's Multi-Threaded: It is possible to write programs that can perform many tasks simultaneously this design feature allows the developers to construct interactive applications that can run smoothly.

Java's bytecode is translated on the run to native machine instructions and not stored anywhere the development process is more rapid and analytical since the linking is an incremental and lightweight process.

With the use of just-in-time compilers, Java enables high performance so this brings us to a question.

Who is using java currently and which platforms are developed using it?

Major Projects in Java Below

  • Uber 
  • Spotify
  • Instagram
  • Google 
  • Netflix 
  • Airbnb
  • What is kotlin?

Kotlin released on February 16 2016 by JetBrains kotlin is a statically typed open source programming language that runs on JVM and an official language for developing android applications.

Kotlin basically gets broken down into java byte code for compilation and this caught the attention of many android developers not only this but there are also quite a few interesting features that kotlin can support let's get going with the features.

Features of Kotlin Below

* In many cases one does not need to use explicit type casting operators in kotlin because the compiler tracks the east checks and explicit cache for immutable values and inserts cast automatically wherever they are needed kotlin proved that.

* It is highly interoperable as it is compatible with most of the java libraries and gets transformed into java bytecode this allowed developers not to face any troubles while working with java based projects kotlin is an open-source project under the Apache 2.0 license that makes it available on Github and is open for community and its support as well.

* Kotlin is developed by one of the major pioneers in software and ide development which is none other than the JetBrains this makes it trustworthy and secure as it has community support from its giant the statically typed nature of the programming language makes it less prone to errors as they get rectified most of the time during the compilation stage itself.

* Kotlin is considered to be highly efficient due to its concise coding you can say it reduces like 40% to 50% of the code that you usually type in java and most of it was the type of boilerplate code now this brings us to know the popular applications developed using kotlin.

Major Projects in Kotlin Below

  • Adobe
  • Spring 
  • Telegram 
  • Evernote 
  • Gradle Build Tool
  • Pinterest

Java's Edge over Kotlin - Kotlin vs Java

1. Checked Exceptions: the primary one is that the checked exceptions java has checked exceptions while kotlin doesn't examination of small programs result in the conclusion that requiring exception specifications could both enhance developer productivity and enhance code quality without them the developers observed decreased productivity and tiny or no increase in code quality.

2. Non-Private Fields: Encapsulation is important in any program for achieving a desirable level of maintainability utilizing encapsulating the representation of an object.

It is often enforced how callers interact with it moreover it's possible to vary the representation without the necessity to switch callers provided the general public API remains unchanged non-private fields or public fields.

In java are useful in scenarios where the colors of the thing got to change accordingly to its representation it simply means such fields expose the representation of the thing to the callers kotlin doesn't have non-private fields.

3. Static Members and Static Methods: Now in android development things are moving quickly from java to kotlin and one of the most important problems that developers face while migrating from java to kotlin is making a static method because in kotlin there's nothing like static.

Yes, you heard it right kotlin doesn't have a static keyboard if you're an android developer and you're keen on making android applications in java then you want to have used static keyword.

In your application to form some static variables and static methods than on static variables belong to a category and not its instance, an equivalent is with static methods also.

4. Primitive Types: The primitive data types are the most fundamental types in kotlin all other types are built on top of the kinds and arrays thereof their representation is extremely efficient both in terms of memory and CPU time as they map two small byte groups that are directly manipulated by the CPU and this sort of issue isn't faced in Java.

5. Ternary Operator Support: Java has the ternary operator support which most of the time helps to decrease the code length in simple terms this is often not available in kotlin now without the support of static methods and ternary operator you would possibly have a troublesome time developing.

Kotlin's Edge Over Java Below

1. one of the foremost common pitfalls in many programming languages including java is that accessing a member of a null reference which can end in a null reference exception.

2. In java this can be the equivalent of a null pointer exception(npe) for a brief court lands time system is aimed to eliminate the null pointer exception. from our code not only this but the sole possibilities of npe could also be a particular call to through null pointer exception or the usage of exclamatory or not operator next is that the separate interface for the readable and mutable collection.

3. The kotlin standard library offers generic interfaces classes and functions for creating populating and managing collections of any type the gathering interfaces and related functions are located in kotlin. Collections package the kotlin standard library provides an implementation for basic collection types sets, lists, and maps. A pair of interfaces represent each collection A read-only interface that gives operations for accessing collection elements.

Kotlin vs Java 

Speed: Java compilation time is 15% to twenty faster than kotlin compilation time. But the attitude of the incremental build compilation kotlin also will take an equivalent compilation time as

java.

Null Pointer Exception: If you intentionally declare a null value then the cochlear code is going to be collapsed while compilation whereas on the opposite hand in java the null pointer exception is that the biggest nightmare for java programmers.

Extension functions: Kotlin provides developers the power to increase existing classes with new functionality, we will create extent functions by prefixing the name of the category to the name of the new function.

While on the opposite hand in java if we would like to increase the functionality of the prevailing class then we'd like to make a replacement class and inherit the parent class so extension functions aren't available in java.

Casting: Casting in kotlin the smartcast will handle these casting checks with keyword ease checks this may check for immutable values and perform implicit casting while on the opposite hand in java we'd like to see the sort of the variables and cast consistent with the operation, in other words, it's completely manual.

 Checked Exceptions: Checked exceptions in kotlin we do not have checked exceptions so developers don't get to declare or catch the exceptions which have advantages and drawbacks while on the opposite hand in java we've checked exception support which makes the developers declare and catch exception which ultimately results in robust code.

Kotlin vs Java - What Yugasa Thinks?

In 2021. Having planned Android app development in both Java and Kotlin languages for a spread of various app types, we believe that Kotlin does have a series of advantages that place it several points before Java.

But the time is just too soon to mention that Kotlin will replace Java in 2021. The community support that the latter comes with is uncontested.

Businesses should choose an Android app development company that holds expertise in both Java and Kotlin, rather than concentrating and restricting themselves to a Java or Kotlin Android application development company.